Jalisco state capital and largest town of the urban area called Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara. It is located in western Mexico , the center of Jalisco , in the geographical area known as Valle de Atemajac.
Its territory delimited to the north by the municipalities of Zapopan and Santiago River , on the east by Tonala and Zapotlanejo , on the south and west with Tlaquepaque and Zapopan. The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area ( composed of 5 municipalities of Jalisco State) brings together a total of 4,544,123 inhabitants, This makes it the second most important city in Mexico, and the ninth largest urban agglomeration Latin America .
Its name comes from the Arabic word (Wadi al- Hiyara) which means river of stones or river running among stones or strengths Valley. The city council named old New Gales Guadalajara in honor of western Mexico conquistador Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán , who was born in Guadalajara , Spain.
In Mexico it is known by the nickname Pearl of the West or Perla Tapatía, Jalisco Bride or The City of Rosas. Also common is the use of letters GDL to refer to the city.
Natives of Guadalajara are called or Guadalajarenses or Tapatios being the first official and correct adjective but Tapatios is the most common name.
The constant incursions by Spanish conquistador Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán to the western lands of that time and territory of New Spain , in order to increase their dominance and power over those territories , resulted in the establishment of a new province was called Kingdom of Nueva Galicia . The region was inhabited by several indigenous groups , including kinks and Huichol tribes .
Guadalajara had three settlements before settling on its current site , initially Nochistlán was in the area known as the Mesa del Cerro, now known as San Juan . It was founded on January 5, 1532 Cristobal de Oñate , who in effect had been commissioned by Nuño de Guzmán. This cityhood wanted to bring him to secure his conquests yet able to defend the natural bellicosity . The town of Guadalajara was founded by 42 neighbors Guadalajara name it took in memory of the Spanish city of the same name , birthplace of Nuño de Guzmán. Villa did not last long in this place , with the consent of Guzman , Juan de Oñate (son of Cristobal de Oñate ) , Miguel de Ibarra and Sancho Ortiz , on May 19, 1533 , they planned to move it from place .
In the order of Juan de Oñate , who was commissioned by his father mayor of the new town, the May 24, 1533 , it was ordered that the foundation was made in the vicinity of Tonala . So , for the day August 8, 1533 , Guadalajara was in its second seat .
After two years of being the village on that site and after constant attacks from indigenous groups , Nuño de Guzmán ordered Tlacotán founded near , before March 1535 , again changed the site of the villa. On November 8, 1539 the Emperor Charles V granted coat of arms and title of city to the new town of Guadalajara. The new city was attacked on September 28, 1541 by the Indians who had participated in the War of Mixtón . Cristobal de Oñate , then governor of the city organized a battle against the natives of which were victorious the new inhabitants of Guadalajara. They thought then move it to Atemajac Valley , this valley ran the river now known as San Juan de Dios and was a safer place to be defended from attack of the natives.
A Tlacotán moved from Tonala and others where Tetlán October 9, 1541 was proclaimed the pattern of the new neighbors. Cristobal de Oñate , on February 5, 1542 , appointed the members of the new council to govern the destinies of the new city. Finally, on February 14, 1542 he founded the city of Guadalajara on the site where it is now , settling , plus Cristobal de Oñate , 63 families from the peninsula , formed by six Extremadura , 15 portugueses.16 Castilians , Basques 11 , 13 Andalusian and 9 mountaineers . Installed first of the current council Guadalajara , chaired by Miguel de Ibarra Biscay .
Until August 1542, reached its destination, the royal decrees issued by Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and I of Spain , in November 1539, in which the title granted to Guadalajara city and coat of arms, that same month, proclaimed both bonds in the main square of Guadalajara and final novel .
In 1560 Pope Paul III authorized Guadalajara establish the bishopric of Nueva Galicia , and in that same year the audience ‘s reign was also transferred to that city, which by the time harbored some 500 Spanish , to as many black slaves and a 2200 Indian families scattered over an area of five kilometers around the first foundations of the Cathedral .
The November 18 , 1791 , provided for the establishment of the University of Guadalajara in the city of the same name , the capital of the New Kingdom of Galicia. The opening of the cultural center was the November 3, 1792 , with the headquarters on St. Thomas excolegio .
For the War of Independence , Guadalajara played an important role as it was in this city where the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla declared the abolition of slavery . It was also here where he published the famous newspaper which published The American Clock ideas. In the vicinity of the place, on the bridge of Calderon , the battle took place where insurgents were defeated . Guadalajara also witnessed the death of the insurgent José Antonio “Master Torres ” who helped make the city Hidalgo . After the war of independence, and with the proclamation of free and sovereign state of Jalisco , This city became the capital of the state .